Articoli scientifici


  • American Academy of Pediatrics. Choosing Wisely
    (http://www.choosingwisely.org/societies/american-academy-of-pediatrics/)
  • Aroua A et al. Exposure of the Swiss population to computed tomography. BMC Med Imaging 2013; 13: 22
  • Arslanoglu A et al. Doctors and intern doctors’ knowledge about patients’ ionizing radiation exposure doses during common radiological examinations. Diagn Interv Radiol 2007; 13(2): 53-55
  • Bautista AB et al. Do clinicians use the American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria in the Management of their patients? AJR 2009: 192: 1581-1585
  • Bernier M-O et al. Radiation ecxposure from CT in early childhood: a French large-scale multicentre study. Brit J Radiol 2012; 85: 53-60
  • Berrington de Gonzalez A, Darby S.  Risk of cancer from diagnostic X-rays: estimates for UK and 14 other countries. The Lancet 2004; 363:345-351
  • Borgen L et al. Clinicians’ justification of imaging: do radiation issues play a role?, Insights Imaging (2010) 1:193–200
  • Bornstein MM et al. Cone beam computed tomography in implant dentistry: a systematic review focusing on guidelines, indications, and radiation dose risks. Int J Oral Maxillofac. Implants. 2014; 29 Suppl:55-77. doi:10.11607/jomi.2014 suppl.g1.4.
  • Borretzen I et al. Diagnostic radiology in Norway trends in examination frequency and collective effective dose. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2007; 124(4): 339-347
  • Brady Z et al. Paediatric CT imaging trends in Australia. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol 2011; 55(2): 132-142
  • Brenner DJ et al. Estimated risks of radiation-induced fatal cancer from pediatric CT, AJR 2001; 176:289-296
  • Brenner DJ et al. Computed tomography – An increasing source of radiation exposure N Engl J Med 2007: 357(22): 2277-2284
  • Catuzzo P et al. Population exposure to ionizing radiation from CT examinations in Aosta Valley between 2001 and 2008. Br J Radiol 2010; 83(996): 1042-1051
  • Etard C et al. Exposure of the French paediatric population to ionizing radiation from diagnostic medical procedures in 2010. Pediatr radiol 2014; 44(12): 1588-1594
  • EURATOM. Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM Official Journal of the European Union 2014
  • European Commission SEDENTEXCT project Radiation protection n. 172: Cone Beam CT for dental and maxillofaciak radiology Evidence based guidelines 2011
  • European Commission, «European guidelines on radiation protection in dental radiology.,» Rp 136, Luxembourg, 2004.
  • EUROPEAN COMMISSION, Referral Guidelines for Imaging, Radiation Protection 118, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg (2001)
  • Fazel R et al. Exposure to low dose ionizing radiation from medical imaging procedures. N Engl J Med 2009; 361: 849-857
  • Guite KM et al. Ionizing radiation in abdominal CT: unindicated multiphase scans are an important source of medically unnecessary exposure. J Am Coll Radiol 2011; 8(11): 756-761
  • Hart D et al. Frequency and collective dose for medical and dental X-ray examinations in the UK, 2008, HPA-CRCE-012  https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/340154/HPA-CRCE-012_for_website.pdf
  • Hayton A et al. Australian per caput dose from diagnostic imaging and nuclear medicine. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2013; 156(4): 445-450
  • Heyer CM et al. Paediatricians awareness of radiation dose and inherent risk in chest imaging studies- A questionnaire study. Europ J radiol 2010;76(2):288–293
  • Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire. Exposition de la population francaise aux rayonnements ionisants liée aux actes de diagnostic medical en2012. Rapport PRP-HOM N. 2014-6 (2014)
  • International Commission on Radiological Protection, Radiological protection in medicine, 105. Annals of the ICRP, 2007; 37(6): 1-332
  • International Commission on Radiological Protection. Radiological Protection in Medicine. Pubblication 105 Elsevier Oxford (2008)
  • International Commission on Radiological Protection. Recommendations of the ICRP, Publication 103, Elsevier, Oxford (2008)
  • Jacob K et al. X-ray dose training: are we exposed to enough? Clin Radiol 2004; 59: 928-934
  • Kocher KE et al. National trends in use of computed tomography in the emergency department. Annals Emerg Med 2011; 58: 452-462
  • Krille L et al. Computed tomographies and cancer risk in children: a literature overwiev of CT practices, risk estimations and an epidemiologic cohort study proposal. Radiat Environ Biophys 2012; 51(2): 103-111
  • Le Coultre R et al. Exposure of the Swiss population by radiodiagnostics: 2013 review. Radiat Protect Dosimetry 2015 (access online); 1-4
  • Lee C et al. Diagnostic CT scas: assessment of patient, physician, and radiologist awareness of radiation dose and possible riss. Radiology 2004; 231: 393-398
  • Malone J et al. Justification of diagnostic medical exposures: some practical issues. Report of an International Atomic Energy Agency Consultation. Br J Radiol 2012; 85(1013): 523-538
  • Mathews JD et al. Cancer risk in 680.000 people exposed to computed tomography scans in childhood or adolescence: data linkage study in 11 million Australians. BMJ 2013; 346: f2360 (http://www.bmj.com/content/346/bmj.f2360)
  • Menoch MJA et al. Trends in computed tomography utilization in the pediatric emergency department. Pediatrics 2012; 129(3): e690-e697
  • Mola E et al. Valutazione dei Bisogni Formativi dei Medici Prescrittori in Merito al Rischio da Radiazioni Ionizzanti. Occhio Clinico 2012; 2; node/1375 (http://www.occhioclinico.it/cms/node/1375)
  • Muhogora WE et al. Paediatric CT examinations in 19 developing countries: frequency and radiation dose. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2010; 140: 49-58
  • National Academy of Sciences. Health Risks from Exposure to low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII -Phase 2, 2006
  • O’Sullivan J et al An assessment of medical students awareness of radiation exposures associated with diagnostic imaging investigations. Insights Imaging 2010; 1: 86-92
  • Palorini F et al. Adult exposures from MDCT including multiphase studies: first Italian nationwide survey. Eur Radiol 2013; 24(2)
  • Pearce MS et al. CT scans in young people in Great Britain: temporal and descriptive patterns, 1993-2002. Radiology Research and Practice 2012, Article ID 594278 pages 1-8
  • Pearce MS et al. CT scans in young people in Northern England: trends and patterns 1993-2002 Pediatr Radiol 2011; 41: 832-838
  • Pearce MS et al. Radiation exposure from CT scans in childhood and subsequent risk of leukaemia and brain tumours: a retrospective cohort study. The Lancet, 2012; 380 (9840) 499-505
  • Picano E. Informed consent and communication of risk from radiological and nuclear medicine examinations: how to escape from a communication inferno. British Medical Journal 2004;329:849-51
  • Picano E. Sustainability of medical imaging. BMJ 2004; 328: 578-580
  • Rehani MM, Berris T. International Atomic Energy Agency study with referral physicians on patient radiation exposure and its tracking: a prospective survey using a web-based questionnaire. BMJ Open 2012;2:e001425.doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012
  • Samara ET et al. Exposure of the Swiss population by medical x-rays: 2008 rewiev. Health Phys 2012; 102(3): 263-270
  • Shannoun F et al. Medical exposure of the population from diagnostic use of ionizing radiation in Luxembourg between 1994 and 2002. Health Phys 2006; 91(2):154-162
  • Shiralkar S et al. Doctors’ knowledge of radiation exposure: questionnaire study. BMJ 2003; 327: 371-372
  • Smith-Bindman R et al. Use of diagnostic imaging studies and associated radiation exposure for patients enrolled in large integrated health care systems, 1996-2010 JAMA 2012; 307(22): 2400-2409
  • Soye JA, paterson A. A survey of awareness of radiation dose among health professionals in Northern Ireland. Br J Radiol 2008; 81(969): 725-729
  • Thomas KE et al. Assessment of radiation dose awareness among pediatricians. Paediatr Radiol 2006; 36: 823-832
  • United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. UNSCEAR 2008 report Vol 1: Sources of ionizing radiation. United Nations (2010)
  • UNSCEAR 2000 Report Vol I. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. Annex D page 295